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Mathematical Formulas - Vector Identities

Algebraic Identities


Identities Involving Differential Operators


Divergence Theorem

Given a closed surface

enclosing a contiguous volume


where the surface normal

is pointing out of the volume.

Stokes’ Theorem

Given a closed curve

bounding a contiguous surface


where the direction of the surface normal

is related to the direction of integration along

by the “right hand rule.”


Ellingson, Steven W. (2018) Electromagnetics, Vol. 1. Blacksburg, VA: VT Publishing. https://doi.org/10.21061/electromagnetics-vol-1 CC BY-SA 4.0

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