# Chapter 12 Review

## Key Terms

**ac current**

current that fluctuates sinusoidally with time at a fixed frequency

**ac voltage**

voltage that fluctuates sinusoidally with time at a fixed frequency

**alternating current (ac)**

flow of electric charge that periodically reverses direction

**average power**

time average of the instantaneous power over one cycle

**bandwidth**

range of angular frequencies over which the average power is greater than one-half the maximum value of the average power

**capacitive reactance**

opposition of a capacitor to a change in current

**direct current (dc)**

flow of electric charge in only one direction

**impedance**

ac analog to resistance in a dc circuit, which measures the combined effect of resistance, capacitive reactance, and inductive reactance

**inductive reactance**

opposition of an inductor to a change in current

**phase angle**

amount by which the voltage and current are out of phase with each other in a circuit

**power factor**

amount by which the power delivered in the circuit is less than the theoretical maximum of the circuit due to voltage and current being out of phase

**quality factor**

dimensionless quantity that describes the sharpness of the peak of the bandwidth; a high quality factor is a sharp or narrow resonance peak

**resonant frequency**

frequency at which the amplitude of the current is a maximum and the circuit would oscillate if not driven by a voltage source

**rms current**

root mean square of the current

**rms voltage**

root mean square of the voltage

**step-down transformer**

transformer that decreases voltage and increases current

**step-up transformer**

transformer that increases voltage and decreases current

**transformer**

device that transforms voltages from one value to another using induction

**transformer equation**

equation showing that the ratio of the secondary to primary voltages in a transformer equals the ratio of the number of turns in their windings

## Key Equations

AC voltage | |

AC current | |

capacitive reactance | |

rms voltage | |

rms current | |

inductive reactance | |

Phase angle of an ac circuit | |

AC version of Ohm’s law | |

Impedance of an ac circuit | |

Average power associated with a circuit element | |

Average power dissipated by a resistor | |

Resonant angular frequency of a circuit | |

Quality factor of a circuit | |

Quality factor of a circuit in terms of the circuit parameters | |

Transformer equation with voltage | |

Transformer equation with current |

## Summary

#### 12.1 AC Sources

- Direct current (dc) refers to systems in which the source voltage is constant.
- Alternating current (ac) refers to systems in which the source voltage varies periodically, particularly sinusoidally.
- The voltage source of an ac system puts out a voltage that is calculated from the time, the peak voltage, and the angular frequency.
- In a simple circuit, the current is found by dividing the voltage by the resistance. An ac current is calculated using the peak current (determined by dividing the peak voltage by the resistance), the angular frequency, and the time.

#### 12.2 Simple AC Circuits

- For resistors, the current through and the voltage across are in phase.
- For capacitors, we find that when a sinusoidal voltage is applied to a capacitor, the voltage follows the current by one-fourth of a cycle. Since a capacitor can stop current when fully charged, it limits current and offers another form of ac resistance, called capacitive reactance, which has units of ohms.
- For inductors in ac circuits, we find that when a sinusoidal voltage is applied to an inductor, the voltage leads the current by one-fourth of a cycle.
- The opposition of an inductor to a change in current is expressed as a type of ac reactance. This inductive reactance, which has units of ohms, varies with the frequency of the ac source.

#### 12.3 *RLC* Series Circuits with AC

- An series circuit is a resistor, capacitor, and inductor series combination across an ac source.
- The same current flows through each element of an series circuit at all points in time.
- The counterpart of resistance in a dc circuit is impedance, which measures the combined effect of resistors, capacitors, and inductors. The maximum current is defined by the ac version of Ohm’s law.
- Impedance has units of ohms and is found using the resistance, the capacitive reactance, and the inductive reactance.

#### 12.4 Power in an AC Circuit

- The average ac power is found by multiplying the rms values of current and voltage.
- Ohm’s law for the rms ac is found by dividing the rms voltage by the impedance.
- In an ac circuit, there is a phase angle between the source voltage and the current, which can be found by dividing the resistance by the impedance.
- The average power delivered to an circuit is affected by the phase angle.
- The power factor ranges from to .

#### 12.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit

- At the resonant frequency, inductive reactance equals capacitive reactance.
- The average power versus angular frequency plot for a circuit has a peak located at the resonant frequency; the sharpness or width of the peak is known as the bandwidth.
- The bandwidth is related to a dimensionless quantity called the quality factor. A high quality factor value is a sharp or narrow peak.

#### 12.6 Transformers

- Power plants transmit high voltages at low currents to achieve lower ohmic losses in their many kilometers of transmission lines.
- Transformers use induction to transform voltages from one value to another.
- For a transformer, the voltages across the primary and secondary coils, or windings, are related by the transformer equation.
- The currents in the primary and secondary windings are related by the number of primary and secondary loops, or turns, in the windings of the transformer.
- A step-up transformer increases voltage and decreases current, whereas a step-down transformer decreases voltage and increases current.

## Answers to Check Your Understanding

12.1

12.2 a.

,

; b.

,

; c.

,

12.3

;

;

12.4

12.5

;

;

12.6 a.

; b.

; c.

; d.

12.7 a. halved; b. halved; c. same

12.8

12.9 a.

; b.

; c.

## Conceptual Questions

#### 12.1 AC Sources

1. What is the relationship between frequency and angular frequency?

#### 12.2 Simple AC Circuits

2. Explain why at high frequencies a capacitor acts as an ac short, whereas an inductor acts as an open circuit.

#### 12.3 *RLC* Series Circuits with AC

3. In an

series circuit, can the voltage measured across the capacitor be greater than the voltage of the source? Answer the same question for the voltage across the inductor.

#### 12.4 Power in an AC Circuit

4. For what value of the phase angle

between the voltage output of an ac source and the current is the average power output of the source a maximum?

5. Discuss the differences between average power and instantaneous power.

6. The average ac current delivered to a circuit is zero. Despite this, power is dissipated in the circuit. Explain.

7. Can the instantaneous power output of an ac source ever be negative? Can the average power output be negative?

8. The power rating of a resistor used in ac circuits refers to the maximum average power dissipated in the resistor. How does this compare with the maximum instantaneous power dissipated in the resistor?

#### 12.6 Transformers

9. Why do transmission lines operate at very high voltages while household circuits operate at fairly small voltages?

10. How can you distinguish the primary winding from the secondary winding in a step-up transformer?

11. Battery packs in some electronic devices are charged using an adapter connected to a wall socket. Speculate as to the purpose of the adapter.

12. Will a transformer work if the input is a dc voltage?

13. Why are the primary and secondary coils of a transformer wrapped around the same closed loop of iron?

## Problems

#### 12.1 AC Sources

14. Write an expression for the output voltage of an ac source that has an amplitude of

and a frequency of

#### 12.2 Simple AC Circuits

15. Calculate the reactance of a

capacitor at (a)

(b)

and (c)

16. What is the capacitance of a capacitor whose reactance is

at

?

17. Calculate the reactance of a

inductor at (a)

(b)

and (c)

18. What is the self-inductance of a coil whose reactance is

at

?

19. At what frequency is the reactance of a

capacitor equal to that of a

inductor?

20. At

the reactance of a

inductor is equal to the reactance of a particular capacitor. What is the capacitance of the capacitor?

21. A

resistor is connected across the emf

Write an expression for the current through the resistor.

22. A

capacitor is connected to an emf given by

(a) What is the reactance of the capacitor? (b) Write an expression for the current output of the source.

23. A

inductor is connected across the emf of the preceding problem. (a) What is the reactance of the inductor? (b) Write an expression for the current through the inductor.

#### 12.3 *RLC* Series Circuits with AC

24. What is the impedance of a series combination of a

resistor, a

capacitor, and a

capacitor at a frequency of

?

25. A resistor and capacitor are connected in series across an ac generator. The emf of the generator is given by

where

and

(a) What is the impedance of the circuit? (b) What is the amplitude of the current through the resistor? (c) Write an expression for the current through the resistor. (d) Write expressions representing the voltages across the resistor and across the capacitor.

26. A resistor and inductor are connected in series across an ac generator. The emf of the generator is given by

where

and

; also,

and

(a) What is the impedance of the circuit? (b) What is the amplitude of the current through the resistor? (c) Write an expression for the current through the resistor. (d) Write expressions representing the voltages across the resistor and across the inductor.

27. In an

series circuit, the voltage amplitude and frequency of the source are

and

respectively, an

and

(a) What is the impedance of the circuit? (b) What is the amplitude of the current from the source? (c) If the emf of the source is given by

how does the current vary with time? (d) Repeat the calculations with

28. An

series circuit with

and

is driven by an ac source whose frequency and voltage amplitude are

and

respectively. (a) What is the impedance of the circuit? (b) What is the amplitude of the current in the circuit? (c) What is the phase angle between the emf of the source and the current?

29. For the circuit shown below, what are (a) the total impedance and (b) the phase angle between the current and the emf? (c) Write an expression for

#### 12.4 Power in an AC Circuit

30. The emf of an ac source is given by

where

and

Calculate the average power output of the source if it is connected across (a) a

capacitor, (b) a

inductor, and (c) a

resistor.

31. Calculate the rms currents for an ac source is given by

where

and

when connected across (a) a

capacitor, (b) a

inductor, and (c) a

resistor.

32. A

inductor is connected to a

AC source whose voltage amplitude is

If an AC voltmeter is placed across the inductor, what does it read?

33. For an

series circuit, the voltage amplitude and frequency of the source are

and

respectively;

; and

Find the average power dissipated in the resistor for the following values for the capacitance: (a)

and (b)

34. An ac source of voltage amplitude

delivers electric energy at a rate of

when its current output is

What is the phase angle

between the emf and the current?

35. An

series circuit has an impedance of

and a power factor of

with the voltage lagging the current. (a) Should a capacitor or an inductor be placed in series with the elements to raise the power factor of the circuit? (b) What is the value of the capacitance or self-inductance that will raise the power factor to unity?

#### 12.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit

36. (a) Calculate the resonant angular frequency of an

series circuit for which

and

(b) If

is changed to

what happens to the resonant angular frequency?

37. The resonant frequency of an

series circuit is

If the self-inductance in the circuit is