Magnetic Forces and Fields

Chapter Outline

Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
Magnetic Fields and Lines
Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
Force and Torque on a Current Loop
The Hall Effect
Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
Chapter 8 Review



industrial electromagnet
Figure 8.0.1. An industrial electromagnet is capable of lifting thousands of pounds of metallic waste. (credit: modification of work by “BedfordAl”/Flickr)



For the past few chapters, we have been studying electrostatic forces and fields, which are caused by electric charges at rest. These electric fields can move other free charges, such as producing a current in a circuit; however, the electrostatic forces and fields themselves come from other static charges. In this chapter, we see that when an electric charge moves, it generates other forces and fields. These additional forces and fields are what we commonly call magnetism.



Before we examine the origins of magnetism, we first describe what it is and how magnetic fields behave. Once we are more familiar with magnetic effects, we can explain how they arise from the behavior of atoms and molecules, and how magnetism is related to electricity. The connection between electricity and magnetism is fascinating from a theoretical point of view, but it is also immensely practical, as shown by an industrial electromagnet that can lift thousands of pounds of metal.



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