Electromagnetic Induction

Chapter Outline

Faraday’s Law
Lenz’s Law
Motional Emf
Induced Electric Fields
Eddy Currents
Electric Generators and Back Emf
Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
Chapter 10 Review



credit card
Figure 10.0.1. The black strip found on the back of credit cards and driver’s licenses is a very thin layer of magnetic material with information stored on it. Reading and writing the information on the credit card is done with a swiping motion. The physical reason why this is necessary is called electromagnetic induction and is discussed in this chapter.



We have been considering electric fields created by fixed charge distributions and magnetic fields produced by constant currents, but electromagnetic phenomena are not restricted to these stationary situations. Most of the interesting applications of electromagnetism are, in fact, time-dependent. To investigate some of these applications, we now remove the time-independent assumption that we have been making and allow the fields to vary with time. In this and the next several chapters, you will see a wonderful symmetry in the behaviour exhibited by time-varying electric and magnetic fields. Mathematically, this symmetry is expressed by an additional term in Ampère’s law and by another key equation of electromagnetism called Faraday’s law. We also discuss how moving a wire through a magnetic field produces an emf or voltage. Lastly, we describe applications of these principles, such as the card reader shown above.



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