Chapter 9 Review
Key Terms
Ampère’s law
physical law that states that the line integral of the magnetic field around an electric current is proportional to the current
BiotSavart law
an equation giving the magnetic field at a point produced by a currentcarrying wire
diamagnetic materials
their magnetic dipoles align oppositely to an applied magnetic field; when the field is removed, the material is unmagnetized
ferromagnetic materials
contain groups of dipoles, called domains, that align with the applied magnetic field; when this field is removed, the material is still magnetized
hysteresis
property of ferromagnets that is seen when a material’s magnetic field is examined versus the applied magnetic field; a loop is created resulting from sweeping the applied field forward and reverse
magnetic domains
groups of magnetic dipoles that are all aligned in the same direction and are coupled together quantum mechanically
magnetic susceptibility
ratio of the magnetic field in the material over the applied field at that time; positive susceptibilities are either paramagnetic or ferromagnetic (aligned with the field) and negative susceptibilities are diamagnetic (aligned oppositely with the field)
paramagnetic materials
their magnetic dipoles align partially in the same direction as the applied magnetic field; when this field is removed, the material is unmagnetized
permeability of free space
measure of the ability of a material, in this case free space, to support a magnetic field
solenoid
thin wire wound into a coil that produces a magnetic field when an electric current is passed through it
toroid
donutshaped coil closely wound around that is one continuous wire
Key Equations
Permeability of free space  
Contribution to magnetic field from a current element  
Biot–Savart law  
Magnetic field due to a long straight wire 

Force between two parallel currents 

Magnetic field of a current loop 

Ampère’s law 

Magnetic field strength inside a solenoid 

Magnetic field strength inside a toroid 

Magnetic permeability 

Magnetic field of a solenoid filled with paramagnetic material Magnetic field due to a 

Summary
9.1 The BiotSavart Law
 The magnetic field created by a currentcarrying wire is found by the BiotSavart law.
 The current element produces a magnetic field a distance away.
9.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
 The strength of the magnetic field created by current in a long straight wire is given by (long straight wire) where is the current, is the shortest distance to the wire, and the constant is the permeability of free space.
 The direction of the magnetic field created by a long straight wire is given by righthand rule (RHR ): Point the thumb of the right hand in the direction of current, and the fingers curl in the direction of the magnetic field loops created by it.
9.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
 The force between two parallel currents and separated by a distance has a magnitude per unit length given by
 The force is attractive if the currents are in the same direction, repulsive if they are in opposite directions.
9.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
 The magnetic field strength at the center of a circular loop is given by (at center of loop), where is the radius of the loop. RHR2 gives the direction of the field about the loop.
9.5 Ampère’s Law
 The magnetic field created by current following any path is the sum (or integral) of the fields due to segments along the path (magnitude and direction as for a straight wire), resulting in a general relationship between current and field known as Ampère’s law.
 Ampère’s law can be used to determine the magnetic field from a thin wire or thick wire by a geometrically convenient path of integration. The results are consistent with the BiotSavart law.
9.6 Solenoids and Toroids
 The magnetic field strength inside a solenoid is
(inside a solenoid)
where
is the number of loops per unit length of the solenoid. The field inside is very uniform in magnitude and direction.
 The magnetic field strength inside a toroid is
(within the toroid)
where
is the number of windings. The field inside a toroid is not uniform and varies with the distance as
9.7 Magnetism in Matter
 Materials are classified as paramagnetic, diamagnetic, or ferromagnetic, depending on how they behave in an applied magnetic field.
 Paramagnetic materials have partial alignment of their magnetic dipoles with an applied magnetic field. This is a positive magnetic susceptibility. Only a surface current remains, creating a solenoidlike magnetic field.
 Diamagnetic materials exhibit induced dipoles opposite to an applied magnetic field. This is a negative magnetic susceptibility.
 Ferromagnetic materials have groups of dipoles, called domains, which align with the applied magnetic field. However, when the field is removed, the ferromagnetic material remains magnetized, unlike paramagnetic materials. This magnetization of the material versus the applied field effect is called hysteresis.
Answers to Check Your Understanding
9.1
9.2
9.3 4 amps flowing out of the page
9.4 Both have a force per unit length of
9.5
9.6 In these cases the integrals around the Ampèrian loop are very difficult because there is no symmetry, so this method would not be useful.
9.7 a.
b.
9.8 a.
b.
c.
Conceptual Questions
9.1 The BiotSavart Law
1. For calculating magnetic fields, what are the advantages and disadvantages of the BiotSavart law?
2. Describe the magnetic field due to the current in two wires connected to the two terminals of a source of emf and twisted tightly around each other.
3. How can you decide if a wire is infinite?
4. Identical currents are carried in two circular loops; however, one loop has twice the diameter as the other loop. Compare the magnetic fields created by the loops at the center of each loop.
9.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
5. How would you orient two long, straight, currentcarrying wires so that there is no net magnetic force between them? (Hint: What orientation would lead to one wire not experiencing a magnetic field from the other?)
9.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
6. Compare and contrast the electric field of an infinite line of charge and the magnetic field of an infinite line of current.
7. Is
constant in magnitude for points that lie on a magnetic field line?
9.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
8. Is the magnetic field of a current loop uniform?
9. What happens to the length of a suspended spring when a current passes through it?
10. Two concentric circular wires with different diameters carry currents in the same direction. Describe the force on the inner wire.
9.5 Ampère’s Law
11. Is Ampère’s law valid for all closed paths? Why isn’t it normally useful for calculating a magnetic field?
9.6 Solenoids and Toroids
12. Is the magnetic field inside a toroid completely uniform? Almost uniform?
13. Explain why
inside a long, hollow copper pipe that is carrying an electric current parallel to the axis. Is
outside the pipe?
9.7 Magnetism in Matter
14. A diamagnetic material is brought close to a permanent magnet. What happens to the material?
15. If you cut a bar magnet into two pieces, will you end up with one magnet with an isolated north pole and another magnet with an isolated south pole? Explain your answer.
Problems
9.1 The BiotSavart Law
16. A
current flows through the wire shown. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field due to a
segment of wire as measured at (a) point A and (b) point B?
17. Ten amps flow through a square loop where each side is
in length. At each corner of the loop is a
segment that connects the longer wires as shown. Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic field at the center of the loop.
18. What is the magnetic field at P due to the current
in the wire shown?
19. The accompanying figure shows a current loop consisting of two concentric circular arcs and two perpendicular radial lines. Determine the magnetic field at point P.
20. Find the magnetic field at the center C of the rectangular loop of wire shown in the accompanying figure.
21. Two long wires, one of which has a semicircular bend of radius
are positioned as shown in the accompanying figure. If both wires carry a current
how far apart must their parallel sections be so that the net magnetic field at P is zero? Does the current in the straight wire flow up or down?
9.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
22. A typical current in a lightning bolt is
Estimate the magnetic field
from the bolt.
23. The magnitude of the magnetic field
from a long, thin, straight wire is
What is the current through the long wire?
24. A transmission line strung
above the ground carries a current of
What is the magnetic field on the ground directly below the wire? Compare your answer with the magnetic field of Earth.
25. A long, straight, horizontal wire carries a lefttoright current of
If the wire is placed in a uniform magnetic field of magnitude
that is directed vertically downward, what is the resultant magnitude of the magnetic field
above the wire?
below the wire?
26. The two long, parallel wires shown in the accompanying figure carry currents in the same direction. If
and
what is the magnetic field at point P?
27. The accompanying figure shows two long, straight, horizontal wires that are parallel and a distance
apart. If both wires carry current
in the same direction, (a) what is the magnetic field at
? (b)
?
28. Repeat the calculations of the preceding problem with the direction of the current in the lower wire reversed.
29. Consider the area between the wires of the preceding problem. At what distance from the top wire is the net magnetic field a minimum? Assume that the currents are equal and flow in opposite directions.
9.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
30. Two long, straight wires are parallel and
apart. (a) If each wire carries a current of
in the same direction, what is the magnetic force per meter exerted on each wire? (b) Does the force pull the wires together or push them apart? (c) What happens if the currents flow in opposite directions?
31. Two long, straight wires are parallel and
apart. One carries a current of
the other a current of
(a) If the two currents flow in opposite directions, what is the magnitude and direction of the force per unit length of one wire on the other? (b) What is the magnitude and direction of the force per unit length if the currents flow in the same direction?
32. Two long, parallel wires are hung by cords of length
as shown in the accompanying figure. Each wire has a mass per unit length of
and they carry the same current in opposite directions. What is the current if the cords hang at
with respect to the vertical?
33. A circuit with current
has two long parallel wire sections that carry current in opposite directions. Find magnetic field at a point P near these wires that is a distance
from one wire and
from the other wire as shown in the figure.
34. The infinite, straight wire shown in the accompanying figure carries a current
The rectangular loop, whose long sides are parallel to the wire, carries a current
What are the magnitude and direction of the force on the rectangular loop due to the magnetic field of the wire?
9.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
35. When the current through a circular loop is
the magnetic field at its center is
What is the radius of the loop?
36. How many turns must be wound on a flat, circular coil of radius
in order to produce a magnetic field of magnitude
at the center of the coil when the current through it is
?
37. A flat, circular loop has
turns. The radius of the loop is
and the current through the wire is
Determine the magnitude of the magnetic field at the center of the loop.
38. A circular loop of radius
carries a current
At what distance along the axis of the loop is the magnetic field onehalf its value at the center of the loop?
39. Two flat, circular coils, each with a radius
and wound with
turns, are mounted along the same axis so that they are parallel a distance
apart. What is the magnetic field at the midpoint of the common axis if a current
flows in the same direction through each coil?
40. For the coils in the preceding problem, what is the magnetic field at the center of either coil?
9.5 Ampère’s Law
41. A current
flows around the rectangular loop shown in the accompanying figure. Evaluate
for the paths
and
42. Evaluate
for each of the cases shown in the accompanying figure.
43. The coil whose lengthwise cross section is shown in the accompanying figure carries a current
and has
evenly spaced turns distributed along the length
Evaluate
for the paths indicated.
44. A superconducting wire of diameter