# Chapter 9 Review

## Key Terms

Ampère’s law
physical law that states that the line integral of the magnetic field around an electric current is proportional to the current

Biot-Savart law
an equation giving the magnetic field at a point produced by a current-carrying wire

diamagnetic materials
their magnetic dipoles align oppositely to an applied magnetic field; when the field is removed, the material is unmagnetized

ferromagnetic materials
contain groups of dipoles, called domains, that align with the applied magnetic field; when this field is removed, the material is still magnetized

hysteresis
property of ferromagnets that is seen when a material’s magnetic field is examined versus the applied magnetic field; a loop is created resulting from sweeping the applied field forward and reverse

magnetic domains
groups of magnetic dipoles that are all aligned in the same direction and are coupled together quantum mechanically

magnetic susceptibility
ratio of the magnetic field in the material over the applied field at that time; positive susceptibilities are either paramagnetic or ferromagnetic (aligned with the field) and negative susceptibilities are diamagnetic (aligned oppositely with the field)

paramagnetic materials
their magnetic dipoles align partially in the same direction as the applied magnetic field; when this field is removed, the material is unmagnetized

permeability of free space

measure of the ability of a material, in this case free space, to support a magnetic field

solenoid
thin wire wound into a coil that produces a magnetic field when an electric current is passed through it

toroid
donut-shaped coil closely wound around that is one continuous wire

## Key Equations

 Permeability of free space Contribution to magnetic field from a current element Biot–Savart law Magnetic field due to a long straight wire Force between two parallel currents Magnetic field of a current loop Ampère’s law Magnetic field strength inside a solenoid Magnetic field strength inside a toroid Magnetic permeability Magnetic field of a solenoid filled with paramagnetic material Magnetic field due to a

## Summary

#### 9.1 The Biot-Savart Law

• The magnetic field created by a current-carrying wire is found by the Biot-Savart law.
• The current element produces a magnetic field a distance away.

#### 9.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire

• The strength of the magnetic field created by current in a long straight wire is given by (long straight wire) where is the current, is the shortest distance to the wire, and the constant is the permeability of free space.
• The direction of the magnetic field created by a long straight wire is given by right-hand rule (RHR ): Point the thumb of the right hand in the direction of current, and the fingers curl in the direction of the magnetic field loops created by it.

#### 9.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents

• The force between two parallel currents and separated by a distance has a magnitude per unit length given by
• The force is attractive if the currents are in the same direction, repulsive if they are in opposite directions.

#### 9.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop

• The magnetic field strength at the center of a circular loop is given by (at center of loop), where is the radius of the loop. RHR-2 gives the direction of the field about the loop.

#### 9.5 Ampère’s Law

• The magnetic field created by current following any path is the sum (or integral) of the fields due to segments along the path (magnitude and direction as for a straight wire), resulting in a general relationship between current and field known as Ampère’s law.
• Ampère’s law can be used to determine the magnetic field from a thin wire or thick wire by a geometrically convenient path of integration. The results are consistent with the Biot-Savart law.

#### 9.6 Solenoids and Toroids

• The magnetic field strength inside a solenoid is

(inside a solenoid)

where

is the number of loops per unit length of the solenoid. The field inside is very uniform in magnitude and direction.

• The magnetic field strength inside a toroid is

(within the toroid)

where

is the number of windings. The field inside a toroid is not uniform and varies with the distance as

#### 9.7 Magnetism in Matter

• Materials are classified as paramagnetic, diamagnetic, or ferromagnetic, depending on how they behave in an applied magnetic field.
• Paramagnetic materials have partial alignment of their magnetic dipoles with an applied magnetic field. This is a positive magnetic susceptibility. Only a surface current remains, creating a solenoid-like magnetic field.
• Diamagnetic materials exhibit induced dipoles opposite to an applied magnetic field. This is a negative magnetic susceptibility.
• Ferromagnetic materials have groups of dipoles, called domains, which align with the applied magnetic field. However, when the field is removed, the ferromagnetic material remains magnetized, unlike paramagnetic materials. This magnetization of the material versus the applied field effect is called hysteresis.

9.1

9.2

9.3 4 amps flowing out of the page

9.4 Both have a force per unit length of

9.5

9.6 In these cases the integrals around the Ampèrian loop are very difficult because there is no symmetry, so this method would not be useful.

9.7 a.

b.

9.8 a.

b.

c.

## Conceptual Questions

#### 9.1 The Biot-Savart Law

1. For calculating magnetic fields, what are the advantages and disadvantages of the Biot-Savart law?

2. Describe the magnetic field due to the current in two wires connected to the two terminals of a source of emf and twisted tightly around each other.

3. How can you decide if a wire is infinite?

4. Identical currents are carried in two circular loops; however, one loop has twice the diameter as the other loop. Compare the magnetic fields created by the loops at the center of each loop.

#### 9.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire

5. How would you orient two long, straight, current-carrying wires so that there is no net magnetic force between them? (Hint: What orientation would lead to one wire not experiencing a magnetic field from the other?)

#### 9.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents

6. Compare and contrast the electric field of an infinite line of charge and the magnetic field of an infinite line of current.

7. Is

constant in magnitude for points that lie on a magnetic field line?

#### 9.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop

8. Is the magnetic field of a current loop uniform?

9. What happens to the length of a suspended spring when a current passes through it?

10. Two concentric circular wires with different diameters carry currents in the same direction. Describe the force on the inner wire.

#### 9.5 Ampère’s Law

11. Is Ampère’s law valid for all closed paths? Why isn’t it normally useful for calculating a magnetic field?

#### 9.6 Solenoids and Toroids

12. Is the magnetic field inside a toroid completely uniform? Almost uniform?

13. Explain why

inside a long, hollow copper pipe that is carrying an electric current parallel to the axis. Is

outside the pipe?

#### 9.7 Magnetism in Matter

14. A diamagnetic material is brought close to a permanent magnet. What happens to the material?

15. If you cut a bar magnet into two pieces, will you end up with one magnet with an isolated north pole and another magnet with an isolated south pole? Explain your answer.

## Problems

#### 9.1 The Biot-Savart Law

16. A

current flows through the wire shown. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field due to a

segment of wire as measured at (a) point A and (b) point B?

17. Ten amps flow through a square loop where each side is

in length. At each corner of the loop is a

segment that connects the longer wires as shown. Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic field at the center of the loop.

18. What is the magnetic field at P due to the current

in the wire shown?

19. The accompanying figure shows a current loop consisting of two concentric circular arcs and two perpendicular radial lines. Determine the magnetic field at point P.

20. Find the magnetic field at the center C of the rectangular loop of wire shown in the accompanying figure.

21. Two long wires, one of which has a semicircular bend of radius

are positioned as shown in the accompanying figure. If both wires carry a current

how far apart must their parallel sections be so that the net magnetic field at P is zero? Does the current in the straight wire flow up or down?

#### 9.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire

22. A typical current in a lightning bolt is

Estimate the magnetic field

from the bolt.

23. The magnitude of the magnetic field

from a long, thin, straight wire is

What is the current through the long wire?

24. A transmission line strung

above the ground carries a current of

What is the magnetic field on the ground directly below the wire? Compare your answer with the magnetic field of Earth.

25. A long, straight, horizontal wire carries a left-to-right current of

If the wire is placed in a uniform magnetic field of magnitude

that is directed vertically downward, what is the resultant magnitude of the magnetic field

above the wire?

below the wire?

26. The two long, parallel wires shown in the accompanying figure carry currents in the same direction. If

and

what is the magnetic field at point P?

27. The accompanying figure shows two long, straight, horizontal wires that are parallel and a distance

apart. If both wires carry current

in the same direction, (a) what is the magnetic field at

? (b)

?

28. Repeat the calculations of the preceding problem with the direction of the current in the lower wire reversed.

29. Consider the area between the wires of the preceding problem. At what distance from the top wire is the net magnetic field a minimum? Assume that the currents are equal and flow in opposite directions.

#### 9.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents

30. Two long, straight wires are parallel and

apart. (a) If each wire carries a current of

in the same direction, what is the magnetic force per meter exerted on each wire? (b) Does the force pull the wires together or push them apart? (c) What happens if the currents flow in opposite directions?

31. Two long, straight wires are parallel and

apart. One carries a current of

the other a current of

(a) If the two currents flow in opposite directions, what is the magnitude and direction of the force per unit length of one wire on the other? (b) What is the magnitude and direction of the force per unit length if the currents flow in the same direction?

32. Two long, parallel wires are hung by cords of length

as shown in the accompanying figure. Each wire has a mass per unit length of

and they carry the same current in opposite directions. What is the current if the cords hang at

with respect to the vertical?

33. A circuit with current

has two long parallel wire sections that carry current in opposite directions. Find magnetic field at a point P near these wires that is a distance

from one wire and

from the other wire as shown in the figure.

34. The infinite, straight wire shown in the accompanying figure carries a current

The rectangular loop, whose long sides are parallel to the wire, carries a current

What are the magnitude and direction of the force on the rectangular loop due to the magnetic field of the wire?

#### 9.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop

35. When the current through a circular loop is

the magnetic field at its center is

What is the radius of the loop?

36. How many turns must be wound on a flat, circular coil of radius

in order to produce a magnetic field of magnitude

at the center of the coil when the current through it is

?

37. A flat, circular loop has

turns. The radius of the loop is

and the current through the wire is

Determine the magnitude of the magnetic field at the center of the loop.

38. A circular loop of radius

carries a current

At what distance along the axis of the loop is the magnetic field one-half its value at the center of the loop?

39. Two flat, circular coils, each with a radius

and wound with

turns, are mounted along the same axis so that they are parallel a distance

apart. What is the magnetic field at the midpoint of the common axis if a current

flows in the same direction through each coil?

40. For the coils in the preceding problem, what is the magnetic field at the center of either coil?

#### 9.5 Ampère’s Law

41. A current

flows around the rectangular loop shown in the accompanying figure. Evaluate

for the paths

and

42. Evaluate

for each of the cases shown in the accompanying figure.

43. The coil whose lengthwise cross section is shown in the accompanying figure carries a current

and has

evenly spaced turns distributed along the length

Evaluate

for the paths indicated.

44. A superconducting wire of diameter

carries a current of

What is the magnetic field just outside the wire?

45. A long, straight wire of radius

carries a current

that is distributed uniformly over the cross-section of the wire. At what distance from the axis of the wire is the magnitude of the magnetic field a maximum?

46. The accompanying figure shows a cross-section of a long, hollow, cylindrical conductor of inner radius

A

current distributed uniformly over the cross-section flows into the page. Calculate the magnetic field at

and

47. A long, solid, cylindrical conductor of radius

carries a current of

distributed uniformly over its cross-section. Plot the magnetic field as a function of the radial distance

from the center of the conductor.

48. A portion of a long, cylindrical coaxial cable is shown in the accompanying figure. A current

flows down the center conductor, and this current is returned in the outer conductor. Determine the magnetic field in the regions (a)

(b)

(c)

and (d)

Assume that the current is distributed uniformly over the cross sections of the two parts of the cable.

#### 9.6 Solenoids and Toroids

49. A solenoid is wound with

turns per meter. When the current is

what is the magnetic field within the solenoid?

50. A solenoid has

turns per centimeter. What current will produce a magnetic field of

within the solenoid?

51. If a current is

how many turns per centimeter must be wound on a solenoid in order to produce a magnetic field of

within it?

52. A solenoid is

long, has a diameter of

and is wound with

turns. If the current through the windings is

what is the magnetic field at a point on the axis of the solenoid that is (a) at the center of the solenoid, (b)

from one end of the solenoid, and (c)

from one end of the solenoid? (d) Compare these answers with the infinite-solenoid case.

53. Determine the magnetic field on the central axis at the opening of a semi-infinite solenoid. (That is, take the opening to be at

and the other end to be at

54. By how much is the approximation

in error at the center of a solenoid that is

long, has a diameter of

is wrapped with

turns per meter, and carries a current

?

55. A solenoid with

turns per centimeter carries a current

An electron moves within the solenoid in a circle that has a radius of

and is perpendicular to the axis of the solenoid. If the speed of the electron is

what is

?

56. A toroid has

turns of wire and carries a current of

Its inner and outer radii are

and

What are the values of its magnetic field at

and

?

57. A toroid with a square cross section

has an inner radius of

It is wound with

turns of wire, and it carries a current of

What is the strength of the magnetic field at the center of the square cross section?

#### 9.7 Magnetism in Matter

58. The magnetic field in the core of an air-filled solenoid is

By how much will this magnetic field decrease if the air is pumped out of the core while the current is held constant?

59. A solenoid has a ferromagnetic core,

turns per metre, and

If

inside the solenoid is

what is

for the core material?

60. A

current flows through a solenoid with

turns per meter. What is the magnetic field inside the solenoid if its core is (a) a vacuum and (b) filled with liquid oxygen at

?

61. The magnetic dipole moment of the iron atom is about

(a) Calculate the maximum magnetic dipole moment of a domain consisting of

iron atoms. (b) What current would have to flow through a single circular loop of wire of diameter

to produce this magnetic dipole moment?

62. Suppose you wish to produce a

magnetic field in a toroid with an iron core for which

The toroid has a mean radius of

and is wound with

turns. What current is required?

63. A current of

flows through the windings of a large, thin toroid with

turns per meter. If the toroid is filled with iron for which

what is the magnetic field within it?

64. A solenoid with an iron core is

long and is wrapped with

turns of wire. When the current through the solenoid is

the magnetic field inside it is

For this current, what is the permeability of the iron? If the current is turned off and then restored to

will the magnetic field necessarily return to

?

65. Three long, straight, parallel wires, all carrying

are positioned as shown in the accompanying figure. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field at the point

?

66. A current

flows around a wire bent into the shape of a square of side

What is the magnetic field at the point P that is a distance