C  Fundamental Constants
Quantity  Symbol  Value 

Atomic mass unit  u  
Avogadro’s number  N_{A}  
Bohr magneton  
Bohr radius  
Boltzmann’s constant  
Compton wavelength  
Coulomb constant  
Deuteron mass  
Electron mass  
Electron volt  
Elementary charge  e  
Gas constant  R  
Gravitational constant  G  
Neutron mass  
Nuclear magneton  
Permeability of free space  (exact)  
Permittivity of free space  (exact)  
Planck’s constant  h 

Proton mass  
Rydberg constant  
Speed of light in vacuum  c  (exact) 
Table C1 Fundamental Constants
Note: These constants are the values recommended in 2006 by CODATA, based on a leastsquares adjustment of data from different measurements. The numbers in parentheses for the values represent the uncertainties of the last two digits.
Useful combinations of constants for calculations
Candela Citations
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Introduction to Electricity, Magnetism, and Circuits by Daryl Janzen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.
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