Glossary page banner

Simple Definitions

The most important electronics terms, demystified in one place.


Video Tutorials:

New Video Tutorials:


Our Take

The center portion of the atom, comprised of neutrons and protons. Not that important for most of what we do except its relationship with the orbiting electrons.

Book Definition

The massive, stable part of the atom which contains both protons and neutrons.

Grob’s Basic Electronics, 11th Edition by Mitchel E. Schultz

The central part of an atom containing protons and neutrons.

Electronic Devices : Conventional Current Version, 9th Edition by Thomas L. Floyd


The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment. After the discovery of the neutron in 1932, models for a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons were quickly developed by Dmitri Ivanenko[1] and Werner Heisenberg.[2][3][4][5][6] An atom is composed of a positively-charged nucleus, with a cloud of negatively-charged electrons surrounding it, bound together by electrostatic force. Almost all of the mass of an atom is located in the nucleus, with a very small contribution from the electron cloud. Protons and neutrons are bound together to form a nucleus by the nuclear force.

The diameter of the nucleus is in the range of 1.7566 fm (1.7566×10−15 m) for hydrogen (the diameter of a single proton) to about 11.7142 fm for the heaviest atom uranium.[7] These dimensions are much smaller than the diameter of the atom itself (nucleus + electron cloud), by a factor of about 26,634 (uranium atomic radius is about 156 pm (156×10−12 m))[8] to about 60,250 (hydrogen atomic radius is about 52.92 pm).[a]

The branch of physics concerned with the study and understanding of the atomic nucleus, including its composition and the forces which bind it together, is called nuclear physics.

Make Bread with our CircuitBread Toaster!

Get the latest tools and tutorials, fresh from the toaster.

What are you looking for?