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Electronics Reference

Bipolar Junction Transistors (AC Analysis)

Fixed-Bias Configuration (Unloaded)

Input Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX09XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtCfX1ccGFyYWxsZWwgXGJldGEgXHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX0=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX0gXGNvbmcgXGJldGEgXHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX0gXDtcO1w7IFxsZWZ0ICggXHRleHRybXtSfV9cdGV4dHJte0J9XGdlcSAxMFxiZXRhIFx0ZXh0cm17cn1fe2V9IFxyaWdodCAp
Output Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b309XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX1ccGFyYWxsZWwgXHRleHRybXtyfV97b30=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b30gXGNvbmcgXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0gXDtcO1w7IFxsZWZ0ICggXHRleHRybXtyfV97b31cZ2VxIDEwXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0gXHJpZ2h0ICk=
Voltage Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97dn09LVxmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319XHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17cn1fe299fXtcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfX0=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97dn09LVxmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319fXtcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfX0gXDtcO1w7IFxsZWZ0ICggXHRleHRybXtyfV97b31cZ2VxIDEwXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0gXHJpZ2h0ICk=
Current Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97aX09XGZyYWN7XGJldGEgXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtCfX1cdGV4dHJte3J9X3tvfX17KFx0ZXh0cm17cn1fe299K1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319KShcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0J9fStcYmV0YSBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfSl9latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97aX0gXGNvbmcgXGJldGEgXDtcO1w7IFxsZWZ0ICggXHRleHRybXtyfV97b31cZ2VxIDEwXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0sXDtcdGV4dHJte1J9X1x0ZXh0cm17Qn1cZ2VxIDEwXGJldGEgXHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX0gXHJpZ2h0ICk=
No Equation

Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration (Unloaded)

Input Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX09XHRleHRybXtSfV8xfVxwYXJhbGxlbCBcdGV4dHJte1J9XzJ9XHBhcmFsbGVsIFxiZXRhIFx0ZXh0cm17cn1fe2V9
Output Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b309XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX1ccGFyYWxsZWwgXHRleHRybXtyfV97b30=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b30gXGNvbmcgXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0gXDtcO1w7IFxsZWZ0ICggXHRleHRybXtyfV97b31cZ2VxIDEwXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0gXHJpZ2h0ICk=
Voltage Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97dn09LVxmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319XHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17cn1fe299fXtcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfX0=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97dn09LVxmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319fXtcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfX0gXDtcO1w7IFxsZWZ0ICggXHRleHRybXtyfV97b31cZ2VxIDEwXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0gXHJpZ2h0ICk=
Current Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97aX09XGZyYWN7XGJldGEgXGxlZnQgKCBcdGV4dHJte1J9XzFccGFyYWxsZWwgXHRleHRybXtSfV8yIFxyaWdodCApIFx0ZXh0cm17cn1fe299fXsoXHRleHRybXtyfV97b30rXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0pKFxsZWZ0ICggXHRleHRybXtSfV8xXHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fMiBccmlnaHQgKStcYmV0YSBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfSl9latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97aX1cY29uZyBcZnJhY3tcYmV0YSBcbGVmdCAoIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fMVxwYXJhbGxlbCBcdGV4dHJte1J9XzIgXHJpZ2h0ICl9e1xsZWZ0ICggXHRleHRybXtSfV8xXHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fMiBccmlnaHQgKStcYmV0YSBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfX1cO1w7XDsgXGxlZnQgKCBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tvfVxnZXEgMTBcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0N9fSBccmlnaHQgKQ==
No Equation

Unbypassed Emitter-Bias Configuration (Unloaded)

Input Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX09XHRleHRybXtSfV9cdGV4dHJte0J9XHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Wn1fe2J9

latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97Yn0gXGNvbmcgXGJldGEgXGxlZnQgKCBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfSArIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fXHRleHRybXtFfVxyaWdodCAp
latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX0gXGNvbmcgXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtCfX1ccGFyYWxsZWwgXGJldGEgXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtFfX0gXDtcO1w7XDsgXGxlZnQgKFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17RX19IFxnZyBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfSBccmlnaHQgKQ==
Output Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b309XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0=
Voltage Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97dn09LVxmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319fXtcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfStcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0V9fX0=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97dn0gXGNvbmcgLVxmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319fXtcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0V9fX0gXDtcO1w7XDsgXGxlZnQgKFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17RX19IFxnZyBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfSBccmlnaHQgKQ==
Current Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97aX1cY29uZyAtXGZyYWN7XGJldGEgXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtCfX19e1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Qn19K1x0ZXh0cm17Wn1fe2J9fQ==
No Equation

Emitter Follower Configuration (Unloaded)

Input Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX09XHRleHRybXtSfV9cdGV4dHJte0J9XHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Wn1fe2J9

latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97Yn0gXGNvbmcgXGJldGEgXGxlZnQgKCBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfSArIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fXHRleHRybXtFfVxyaWdodCAp
latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX0gXGNvbmcgXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtCfX1ccGFyYWxsZWwgXGJldGEgXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtFfX0gXDtcO1w7XDsgXGxlZnQgKFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17RX19IFxnZyBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfSBccmlnaHQgKQ==
Output Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b309XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtFfX1ccGFyYWxsZWwgXHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX0=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b30gXGNvbmcgXHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX0gXDtcO1w7XDsgXGxlZnQgKFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17RX19IFxnZyBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfSBccmlnaHQgKQ==
Voltage Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97dn09IFxmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17RX19fXtcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfStcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0V9fX0=
latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97dn0gXGNvbmcgMQ==
Current Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97aX1cY29uZyAtXGZyYWN7XGJldGEgXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtCfX19e1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Qn19K1x0ZXh0cm17Wn1fe2J9fQ==
No Equation

Common-Base Configuration (Unloaded)

Input Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX09XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtFfX1ccGFyYWxsZWwgXHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX0=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX0gXGNvbmcgXHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX0gXDtcO1w7XDsgXGxlZnQgKFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17RX19IFxnZyBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfSBccmlnaHQgKQ==
Output Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b309XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0=
Voltage Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97dn0gXGNvbmcgXGZyYWN7XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX19e1x0ZXh0cm17cn1fe2V9fQ==
Current Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97aX1cY29uZyAtMQ==
No Equation

Collector Feedback Configuration (Unloaded)

Input Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX09IFxmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17cn1fe2V9fXtcZnJhY3sxfXtcYmV0YSB9K1xmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319fXtcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0N9fStcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0Z9fX19IFw7XDtcOyBcbGVmdCAoIFx0ZXh0cm17cn1fe299XGdlcSAxMFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319IFxyaWdodCAp
Output Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b309XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0gXHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Rn19IFw7XDtcOyBcbGVmdCAoIFx0ZXh0cm17cn1fe299XGdlcSAxMFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319IFxyaWdodCAp
Voltage Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97dn0gXGNvbmcgLSBcZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0N9fX17XHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX19IFw7XDtcOyBcbGVmdCAoXHRleHRybXtyfV97b31cZ2VxIDEwXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0sIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Rn19IFxnZyAgXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX0gXHJpZ2h0ICk=
Current Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97aX0gPSBcZnJhY3tcYmV0YSBcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0Z9fX17XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtGfX0rXGJldGEgXHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX19
No Equation

Fixed-Bias Configuration (with RS and RL)

Without roWith ro
Input Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX09XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtCfX1ccGFyYWxsZWwgXGJldGEgXHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX0=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX09XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtCfX1ccGFyYWxsZWwgXGJldGEgXHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX0=
Output Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b30gPSBcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0N9fQ==latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b30gPSBcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0N9fSBccGFyYWxsZWwgXHRleHRybXtyfV97b30=
Voltage Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97Vl97XHRleHRybXtMfX19PS1cZnJhY3tcbGVmdCAoIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17TH19XHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319IFxyaWdodCApfXtcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfX0=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97Vl97XHRleHRybXtMfX19PS1cZnJhY3tcbGVmdCAoIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17TH19XHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319IFxwYXJhbGxlbCBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tvfSBccmlnaHQgKX17XHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX19
No Equation

Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration (with RS and RL)

Without roWith ro
Input Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX09XHRleHRybXtSfV97MX0gXHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fezJ9IFxwYXJhbGxlbCBcYmV0YSBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfQ==latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX09XHRleHRybXtSfV97MX0gXHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fezJ9IFxwYXJhbGxlbCBcYmV0YSBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfQ==
Output Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b30gPSBcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0N9fQ==latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b30gPSBcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0N9fSBccGFyYWxsZWwgXHRleHRybXtyfV97b30=
Voltage Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97Vl97XHRleHRybXtMfX19PS1cZnJhY3tcbGVmdCAoIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17TH19XHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319IFxyaWdodCApfXtcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfX0=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97Vl97XHRleHRybXtMfX19PS1cZnJhY3tcbGVmdCAoIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17TH19XHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319IFxwYXJhbGxlbCBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tvfSBccmlnaHQgKX17XHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX19
No Equation

Common-Base Configuration (with RS and RL)

Without roWith ro
Input Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX09XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtFfX1ccGFyYWxsZWwgXHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX0=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aX09XHRleHRybXtSfV97XHRleHRybXtFfX1ccGFyYWxsZWwgXHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX0=
Output Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b30gPSBcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0N9fQ==latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b30gPSBcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0N9fSBccGFyYWxsZWwgXHRleHRybXtyfV97b30=
Voltage Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97Vl97XHRleHRybXtMfX19PS1cZnJhY3tcbGVmdCAoIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17TH19XHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319IFxyaWdodCApfXtcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tlfX0=latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97Vl97XHRleHRybXtMfX19PS1cZnJhY3tcbGVmdCAoIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17TH19XHBhcmFsbGVsIFx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17Q319IFxwYXJhbGxlbCBcdGV4dHJte3J9X3tvfSBccmlnaHQgKX17XHRleHRybXtyfV97ZX19
No Equation
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