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Electronics Reference

Operational Amplifiers (Basic Circuits)

Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Parameters

Common-Mode Rejection Ratio
latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtDTVJSfT1cZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte0F9X3tvbH19e1x0ZXh0cm17QX1fe2NtfX09MjBcO1x0ZXh0cm17bG9nfVxsZWZ0ICggXGZyYWN7XHRleHRybXtBfV97b2x9fXtcdGV4dHJte0F9X3tjbX19IFxyaWdodCApIFw7XDtcOyAoXHRleHRybXtkQn0p
Aol - Open-Loop Differential Voltage Gain
Acm - Open-Loop Differential Voltage Gain
Input Bias Currentlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtJfV97XHRleHRybXtCSUFTfX09XGZyYWN7MX17Mn1cbGVmdCAoIFx0ZXh0cm17SX1fMStcdGV4dHJte0l9XzJ9IFxyaWdodCAp
Input Offset Currentlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtJfV97XHRleHRybXtPU319PVxsZWZ0IHwgXHRleHRybXtJfV8xLSBcdGV4dHJte0l9XzJ9IFxyaWdodCB8
Offset Voltagelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtWfV97XHRleHRybXtPU319PVx0ZXh0cm17SX1fe1x0ZXh0cm17T1N9fVx0ZXh0cm17Un1fe1x0ZXh0cm17SU59fQ==
Error Output Voltagelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtWfV97XHRleHRybXtPVVR9X3tcdGV4dHJteyhFUlJPUil9fX09XHRleHRybXtBfV97dn1cdGV4dHJte0l9X3tcdGV4dHJte09TfX1cdGV4dHJte1J9X3tcdGV4dHJte0lOfX0=
Slew Ratelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtTbGV3XDtSYXRlfSA9IFxmcmFje1xEZWx0YSBcdGV4dHJte1Z9X3tcdGV4dHJte09VVH19fXtcRGVsdGEgXHRleHRybSB0fT1cZnJhY3srXHRleHRybXtWfV97XHRleHRybXtNQVh9fS0oLVx0ZXh0cm17Vn1fe1x0ZXh0cm17TUFYfX0pfXtcRGVsdGEgXHRleHRybSB0fSBcO1w7XDsgKFx0ZXh0cm17Vn0vXG11IFx0ZXh0cm17c30p
No Equation

Noninverting Amplifier Configuration

Feedback Circuit Attenuationlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtCfT1cZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tpfX17XHRleHRybXtSfV97aX0rXHRleHRybXtSfV97Zn19
Voltage Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97Y2x9X3tcdGV4dHJteyhOSSl9fX09MStcZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tmfX17XHRleHRybXtSfV97aX19
Input Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aW59X3tcdGV4dHJteyhOSSl9fX09XGxlZnQgKCAxKyBcdGV4dHJte0F9X3tvbH1cdGV4dHJte0J9IFxyaWdodCApXHRleHRybXtafV97aW59

Zin - Open-loop input impedance of the op-amp
Output Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b3V0fV97XHRleHRybXsoTkkpfX19PVxmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17Wn1fe291dH19ezErIFx0ZXh0cm17QX1fe29sfVx0ZXh0cm17Qn19

Zout - Open-loop internal output impedance of the op-amp
No Equation

Voltage-Follower Configuration

Voltage Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97Y2x9X3tcdGV4dHJteyhWRil9fX09MQ==
Input Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aW59X3tcdGV4dHJteyhWRil9fX09XGxlZnQgKCAxKyBcdGV4dHJte0F9X3tvbH0gXHJpZ2h0IClcdGV4dHJte1p9X3tpbn0=

Zin - Open-loop input impedance of the op-amp
Output Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b3V0fV97XHRleHRybXsoVkYpfX19PVxmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17Wn1fe291dH19ezErIFx0ZXh0cm17QX1fe29sfX0=

Zout - Open-loop internal output impedance of the op-amp
No Equation

Inverting Amplifier Configuration

Feedback Circuit Attenuationlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtCfT1cZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tpfX17XHRleHRybXtSfV97aX0rXHRleHRybXtSfV97Zn19
Voltage Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97Y2x9X3tcdGV4dHJteyhJKX19fT0tXGZyYWN7XHRleHRybXtSfV97Zn19e1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe2l9fQ==
Input Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97aW59X3tcdGV4dHJteyhJKX19fSBcY29uZyBcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tpfQ==
Output Impedancelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtafV97b3V0fV97XHRleHRybXsoSSl9fX09XGZyYWN7XHRleHRybXtafV97b3V0fX17MSsgXHRleHRybXtBfV97b2x9XHRleHRybXtCfX0=

Zout - Open-loop internal output impedance of the op-amp
No Equation

Op-Amp Frequency and Phase Responses

Open-Loop:

Bandwidthlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtCV309XHRleHRybXtmfV97Y3V9XHRleHRybXtcO1w7KHVwcGVyXDtjcml0aWNhbFw7ZnJlcXVlbmN5KX0=
Internal RC lag circuit attenuationlatex!encoded:base64,XGZyYWN7XHRleHRybXtWfV97b3V0fX17XHRleHRybXtWfV97aW59fT1cZnJhY3sxfXtcc3FydHsxK1xmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17Zn1eezJ9fXtcdGV4dHJte2Z9X3tjfV57Mn19fX0=
Open-Loop Gainlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtBfV97b2x9PVxmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17QX1fe29sX3tcdGV4dHJteyhtaWQpfX19fXtcc3FydHsxK1xmcmFje1x0ZXh0cm17Zn1eezJ9fXtcdGV4dHJte2Z9X3tjfV57Mn19fX0=
Phase Shiftlatex!encoded:base64,XFRoZXRhID0gLVx0ZXh0cm17dGFufV57LTF9XGxlZnQgKCBcZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte2Z9fXtcdGV4dHJte2Z9X3tjfX0gXHJpZ2h0ICk=

Closed-Loop:

Critical Frequencylatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtmfV97Y197KGNsKX19PVx0ZXh0cm17Zn1fe2NfeyhvbCl9fVxsZWZ0ICggMStcdGV4dHJte0J9IFx0ZXh0cm17QX1fe29sX3tcdGV4dHJteyhtaWQpfX19IFxyaWdodCAp
Bandwidthlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtCV31feyhjbCl9PVx0ZXh0cm17Qld9X3sob2wpfVxsZWZ0ICggMStcdGV4dHJte0J9IFx0ZXh0cm17QX1fe29sX3tcdGV4dHJteyhtaWQpfX19IFxyaWdodCAp
Unity-gain Bandwidthlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtmfV97XHRleHRybXtUfX09XHRleHRybXtBfV97KGNsKX1cdGV4dHJte2Z9X3tjX3soY2wpfX0=
No Equation

Comparator with Hysteresis (Schmitt Trigger)

Upper Trigger Point Voltagelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtWfV97XHRleHRybXtVVFB9fT1cZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte1J9X3syfX17XHRleHRybXtSfV97MX0rXHRleHRybXtSfV97Mn19XGxlZnQgKCArXHRleHRybXtWfV97XHRleHRybXtPVVR9X3tcdGV4dHJteyhNQVgpfX19IFxyaWdodCAp
Lower Trigger Point Voltagelatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtWfV97XHRleHRybXtMVFB9fT1cZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte1J9X3syfX17XHRleHRybXtSfV97MX0rXHRleHRybXtSfV97Mn19XGxlZnQgKCAtXHRleHRybXtWfV97XHRleHRybXtPVVR9X3tcdGV4dHJteyhNQVgpfX19IFxyaWdodCAp
Hysteresis Amountlatex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtWfV97XHRleHRybXtIWVN9fT1cdGV4dHJte1Z9X3tcdGV4dHJte1VUUH19LVx0ZXh0cm17Vn1fe1x0ZXh0cm17TFRQfX0=
No Equation

Bounded Comparator

Positive Output Voltagelatex!encoded:base64,K1x0ZXh0cm17Vn1fe1x0ZXh0cm17T1VUfV97XHRleHRybXsoTUFYKX19fSBccmlnaHQgKT1cdGV4dHJte1Z9X3tcdGV4dHJte1p9X3sxfX0rMC43XHRleHRybXtWfQ==
Negative Output Voltagelatex!encoded:base64,LVx0ZXh0cm17Vn1fe1x0ZXh0cm17T1VUfV97XHRleHRybXsoTUFYKX19fSBccmlnaHQgKT0tXGxlZnQgKCBcdGV4dHJte1Z9X3tcdGV4dHJte1p9X3syfX0rMC43XHRleHRybXtWfSBccmlnaHQgKQ==
No Equation

Summing Amplifier Configuration

latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtWfV97XHRleHRybXtPVVR9fT0tXGxlZnQgKCBcZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tmfX17XHRleHRybXtSfV97MX19IFx0ZXh0cm17Vn1fe1x0ZXh0cm17SU59X3sxfX0gKyBcZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tmfX17XHRleHRybXtSfV97Mn19IFx0ZXh0cm17Vn1fe1x0ZXh0cm17SU59X3syfX0gKyBcZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte1J9X3tmfX17XHRleHRybXtSfV97M319IFx0ZXh0cm17Vn1fe1x0ZXh0cm17SU59X3szfX0gKyBcY2RvdHMgKyAgXGZyYWN7XHRleHRybXtSfV97Zn19e1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe259fSBcdGV4dHJte1Z9X3tcdGV4dHJte0lOfV97bn19IFxyaWdodCAp
No Equation

Integrator Configuration

latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtPdXRwdXRcO1ZvbHRhZ2VcO1Nsb3BlOlw7XDtcO30gXGZyYWN7XERlbHRhIFx0ZXh0cm17Vn1fe1x0ZXh0cm17T1VUfX19e1xEZWx0YSBcdGV4dHJte3R9fSA9IC1cZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte1Z9X3tcdGV4dHJte0lOfX19e1x0ZXh0cm17Un1fe2l9XHRleHRybXtDfX0=
No Equation

Differentiator Configuration

latex!encoded:base64,XHRleHRybXtWfV97XHRleHRybXtPVVR9fT0tXGxlZnQgKCBcZnJhY3tcdGV4dHJte1Z9X3tcdGV4dHJte0N9fX17XHRleHRybXt0fX0gXHJpZ2h0ICkgXHRleHRybXtSfV97Zn0gXHRleHRybXtDfSBcO1w7XDtcO1w7XDtcOyAoXHRleHRybXtWfV97XHRleHRybXtDfX19PVx0ZXh0cm17Vn1fe1x0ZXh0cm17SU59fX0p
No Equation
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